Beckmannia syzigachne

1. Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald (N-Am., temp. As.) – A rather regular alien, first seen in 1911 and recently increasing. Now seen most years, usually as a grain alien in port areas but sometimes also found without obvious vector of introduction, for instance on the gravelly banks of river Semois (Thoen 2005), on sludge deposits, etc. Between 1911 and 1947 also rarely recorded as a wool alien in the Vesdre valley near Verviers. In many places often very persistent for several years but, at least for the time being, not fully becoming naturalised.

Early records of Beckmannia syzigachne were referred to the similar but Eurasian B. eruciformis (see for instance Grenfell 1987). The latter usually is a tuberous perennial with two fertile florets and anthers ca. 1,8 mm long (vs. non-tuberous annual with only one fertile floret and anthers ca. 0,8 mm long). Beckmannia eruciformis – although always much more rare as an alien than B. syzigachne – has occurred in several European countries (see for instance van der Meijden 1967, Ryves & al. 1996); it should be looked for in Belgium as well.

Beckmannia syzigachne, inflorescence - Drawing S.Bellanger Beckmannia syzigachne, spikelet - Drawing S.Bellanger
Beckmannia syzigachne, Antwerpen, port area, Amerikadok, rough ground near  grain storage, August 2011, R. Barendse Beckmannia syzigachne, Antwerpen, port area, Amerikadok, rough ground near  grain storage, August 2011, R. Barendse

Herbarium specimen


Selected literature:

Clement E.J. (1981) Adventive news 21. Mixed bag. BSBI News 29: 10-13.

Dorr E. (1995) Neuburger aus Amerika im Allgau. Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 65: 71-79.

Fremstad E. (1994) Radgress, Beckmannia, i Norge. Blyttia 52: 33-38.

Grenfell A.L. (1987) Adventive news: Beckmania syzigachne. BSBI News 47: 34.

Kiffe K. (1989) Ein Massenvorkommen von Beckmannia syzigachne (Steudel) Fernald im Vogelschutzgebiet "Rieselfelder Münster". Florist. Rundbr. 23(1): 54-55.

Lambinon J. (1959) Contribution à l’étude de la flore adventice de la Belgique. II. Etude sur diverses Gramineae. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 91: 179-195.

Richter E. (1981) Beckmannia syzigachne (Steudel) Fernald in der Lewitz. Botanischer Rundbrief für den Bezirk Neubrandenburg 12: 10.

Ryves T.B., Clement E.J. & Foster M.C. (1996) Alien grasses of the British Isles. BSBI, London: XX + 181 p.

Schmidt O., Reichert H. & Schaubel K. (2012) Erstnachweis von Beckmannia syzigachne (Amerikanisches Doppelährengras oder Baikal- Raupenähre, Poaceae) in Rheinland-Pfalz. Florist. Rundbr. 45-46: 86-99.

Thoen D. (2005) Beckmannia syzigachne dans la plaine alluviale de la Semois ardennaise, à Botassart (province de Luxembourg, Belgique). Adoxa 48-49: 52-56.

Tsvelev N.N. (1984) Grasses of the Soviet Union, part 1 and 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam: XVI + 1196 p.

Van der Meijden R. (1967) The geslacht Beckmannia in Nederland. Gorteria 3: 209-211.

Verloove F. & Vandenberghe C. (1994) Nieuwe en interessante graan- en veevoederadventieven voor de Belgische en Noordfranse flora, hoofdzakelijk in 1993. Dumortiera 58-59: 44-59.

Wallnöfer B. & Barta T. (2012) Zweiter Nachweis von Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald (Gramineae) in Niederösterreich. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien B 113: 257-259.

Xu C-M., Qu C-Y., Yu W-G., Zhang X-J. & Li F-Z. (2009) Phylogenetic origin of Beckmannia (Poaceae) inferred from molecular evidence. Journ. Syst. Evol. 47(4): 305-310.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith