Fumaria L.

Fumaria is a genus of ca. 50 species in the Old World. By far most species are native in Europe with some additional species in Africa and Asia. A few are presumably native in Belgium: Fumaria capreolata L., *F. densiflora DC., F. officinalis L., *F. parviflora Lam. and *F. vaillantii Loisel. (Lambinon & Verloove 2012). However, residence status of most of these taxa is uncertain (compare with, for instance, Durand 1899 and Lawalrée 1956a; also Murphy 2009). Most probably are at most archaeophytes. Moreover, some are now more frequently seen as aliens (mostly associated with imported cereals) than they are in “native” habitats (mostly arable land). Also, some may occur / may have occurred as native species but only in very few localities while most findings refer to alien records. This mostly holds true for the species preceded by an asterisk.

The genus Fumaria possibly is insufficiently known in Belgium. In neighbouring regions, especially in the British Isles, several additional species have been recorded (Murphy 2009, Stace 2010), some of which seem to be rather widespread (e.g. Fumaria bastardii Boreau).

1       Corolla 5-6 mm long. Sepals 0,5-0,75(-1) mm long (native) === Fumaria parviflora and F. vaillantii

         Corolla at least 7 mm long. Sepals at least 1,2 mm long === 2

2       Stem always twining, plant often robust. Leaf segments flat, the wider segments at least 2 mm wide. Corolla 9-13 mm long === 3

         Stem rarely slightly twining, plant slender. Leaf segments less than 2 mm wide. Corolla 7-8 mm (native) === F. officinalis and F. densiflora

3       Main colour of corolla at beginning of anthesis pink to rosy-red. Fruiting pedicels rarely deflexed. Inflorescence lax with ca. 8-15 flowers. Fruit often rugulose when dry, with indistinct neck === F. muralis

         Main colour of corolla at beginning of anthesis creamy-white. Fruiting pedicels deflexed. Inflorescence usually dense with ca. 14-25 flowers. Fruit smooth when dry or very slightly rugulose towards keel, with very distinct neck (native) === F. capreolata


Daker M.G. (1964) Cytotaxonomic Studies on European Fumaria L.

Durand T. (1899) Phanérogames. In: De Wildeman E. & Durand T., Prodrome de la flore belge. A. Castaigne Editeur, Bruxelles: 1112 p.

Hafellner J. (1978) Zur Unterscheidung der steirischen Fumaria-Arten. Not. Fl. Steiermark 4: 1-6.

Hammar O.N. (1857) Monographia Generis Fumariarum.

Lambinon J. & Verloove F. (avec coll. Delvosalle L., Toussaint B., Geerinck D., Hoste I., Van Rossum F., Cornier B., Schumacker R., Vanderpoorten A. & Vannerom H.) (2012) Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions voisines (Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes). Sixième édition. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise: CXXXIX + 1195 p.

Lawalrée A (1956a) Fumariaceae. In: Robyns W. (ed.), Flore Générale de Belgique, vol. 2, fasc. 2. Jardin Botanique de l’Etat, Bruxelles: 141-159.

Lidén M. (1986) Synopsis of Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae) with a monograph of the tribe Fumarieae. Opera Bot. 88: 1-133.

Liden M. (1991) Phenetics and Fumaria. Pl. Syst. Evol. 176: 221-225.

Murphy R.J. (2003) Questions concerning fumitories in Cornwall. BSBI News 92: 69-70.

Murphy R.J. (2009) Fumitories of Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook n° 12: 121 p.

Rich T.C.G. & Jermy A.C. (eds.) (1998) Plant crib. BSBI, London: 391 p.

Schmalz N. (2008) Die Gattung Fumaria L. in Mitteleuropa. Floristische Rundbriefe 41: 97-109. [available online at: http://offene-naturfuehrer.de/web/Die_Gattung_Fumaria_L._in_Mitteleuropa_%28Natalie_Schmalz%29]

Sell P.D. (1963) Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on European Fumaria species. Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 68: 174-178.

Sell P. (1993) Fumaria. In: Tutin T. & al. (eds.), Flora Europaea. Volume 1 (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press.

Smejkal M. (1986) Rod Fumaria L. (Fumariaceae) v Českých zemích. Zpr. Čs. Bot. Společ. Praha. 21: 1-12.

Smith P.L. (1984) Systematic Studies of British Fumaria Species: 533 p.

Smith P.L. & Grenfell A.L. (1986) The genus Fumaria in Avon. Proc. Bristol Naturalist's Soc. 44: 35-42.

Soler A. (1983) Revisión de la especies de Fumaria de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Lagascalia 11: 141-228. [available online at: http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=624051]

Stace C. (2010) New flora of the British Isles, 3th ed.: XXXII + 1232 p. Cambridge University Press.

Susplugas J., Massa V., Susplugas P., Taillade R., Susplugas C. & Salabert J. (1975) Fumeterres en Languedoc Roussillon. An. Inst. Bot. A.J. Cavanilles 32(2): 233-239.

Wilson J.B. (1990) A phenetic comparison of some Fumaria species (Fumariaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 172: 51-63.

Zając E.U. (1974) Rodzaj Fumaria L. w Polsce. - Genus Fumaria L. in Poland. Prace botaniczne Kraków 2: 25-112.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith