Gagea Salisb.

Gagea is a genus with ca. 200-250 species that are mostly confined to Central Asia (Tison & de Foucault 2014). Molecular data indicated that Lloydia Reich. is best considered part of it (Zarrei & al. 2009). At least three species are native in Belgium: Gagea lutea (L.) Ker-Gawl., G. spathacea (Hayne) Salisb. and G. villosa (Bieb.) Sweet (Lambinon & Verloove 2012). One additional species, Gagea pratensis (Pers.) Dum., is usually considered as non-native although it might be a very rare native species as well (see for instance van der Meijden 2005).
An additional non-native species, Gagea minima (L.) Ker Gawl., has recently been reported from The Netherlands (Diemeer 2005) and formerly also from Luxembourg (Lambinon & Verloove l.c.). G. bohemica (Zauschn.) Schult. & Schult. f. is known since 1998 from decalcified coastal dunes in the Dunkerque area in northwestern France, close to the Belgian frontiers. It either is a previously overlooked species (very small in stature and early-flowering) that should be looked for in neighboring areas in Belgium or a recent acquisition (spontaneous?).

1 Basal leaf solitary, flat abaxially and narrowly keeled adaxially, 2-12 mm wide. Flowering pedicels glabrous === 2
Basal leaves 2(-3), more or less cylindrical and canaliculate, 0,5-2(-4) mm wide. Flowering pedicels glabrous or hairy (native) === Gagea spathacea, G. villosa

2 Basal leaves 2-5 mm wide, long attenuate at apex. Bulbs (2-)3, unequal, only one with a tunic. Inflorescence 1-3(-6) flowered. Tepals connivent after anthesis === Gagea pratensis
Basal leaves 5-12 mm wide, abruptly narrowed at apex. Bulbs solitary. Inflorescence (1-)3-7(-10) flowered. Tepals rolled after anthesis (native) === G. lutea


Davlianidze M.T. (1972) Conspectus of the Caucasian representatives of the genus Gagea Salisb. I. Notulae Systematicae ac Geographicae, Instituti Botanici Thbilissiensis 29: 1–71.

Davlianidze M.T. (1973) Conspectus of the Caucasian representatives of the genus Gagea Salisb. II. Notulae Systematicae ac Geographicae. Instituti Botanici Thbilissiensis 30: 1–62.

Davlianidze M.T. (1976) A review of the systematics and the taxonomy of the Caucasian representatives of the genus Gagea Salisb. Tbilisi, Metsniereba, 170 pp.

Diemeer J. (2005) Gagea minima (L.) Ker-Gawl. nieuw in Nederland – een erfenis van Linnaeus? Gorteria 31: 11-17. [available online at:]

Grossheim A.A. (1935) Gagea Salisb. In: Komarov V.L. (Ed.) Flora USSR 4. Israel Program for Scientific Translation Ltd.: 61–112. [available online at:]

Lambinon J. & Verloove F. (2012) Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions voisines (Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes). Sixième édition. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise: CXXXIX + 1195 p.

Levichev I.G. (2006) A review of the Gagea (Liliaceae) species in the flora of Caucasus. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 91: 917–951.

Peruzzi L., Peterson A., Tison J.M. & Peterson J. (2008) Phylogenetic relationships of Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in Italy, inferred from molecular and morphological data matrices. Plant Systematics and Evolution 276: 219–234. [available online at:

Peruzzi L., Scuderi L. & Raimondo F.M. (2009) Distribution of the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) in Sicily. Flora Mediterranea 19: 25–47. [available online at:]

Peterson A., John H., Koch E. & Peterson J. (2004) A molecular phylogeny of the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) in Germany inferred from non-coding chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Plant Systematics and Evolution 245: 145–162.

Peterson A., Levichev I.G. & Peterson J. (2008) Systematics of Gagea and Lloydia (Liliaceae) and infrageneric classification of Gagea based on molecular and morphological data. Moleculer Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 446–465.

Peterson A., Levichev I.G., Peterson J., Harpke D. & Schnittler M. (2011) New insights into the phylogeny and taxonomy of Chinese species of Gagea (Liliaceae) - speciation through hybridization. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 11: 387–407. [available online at:

Richardson I.B.K. (1980) Gagea. In: Tutin T.G. & al. (eds.), Flora Europaea, vol. 5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 26-28.

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Tekşen M. & Karaman Erkul S. (2015) The synopsis of the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) in Turkey. Phytotaxa 230(1): 101-129.

Tison J.M. (2004) Contribution à la connaissance du genre Gagea Dalisb. (Liliaceae) en Afrique du Nord. Lagascalia 24: 67–87. [available online at:]

Tison J.M. (2009). An update of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in the Iberian peninsula. Lagascalia 29: 7–22. [available online at:]

Tison J.-M. & de Foucault B. (coord.) 2014) Flora Gallica. Flore de France. Editions Biotope, Mèze : xx + 1196 p.

Tison J.M., Peterson A., Harpke D. & Peruzzi L. (2013) Reticulate evolution of the critical Mediterranean Gagea sect. Didymobulbos (Liliaceae) and its taxonomic implications. Plant Systematics and Evolution 299: 413–438. [available online at:

Uphof J.C.T. (1958-1960) A review of the genus Gagea Salisb. Plant Life 14: 124-132, 15: 151-161, 16: 163-176.

Van der Meijden R. (2005) Heukels’ Flora van Nederland (23e druk). Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen: 685 p.

Zarrei M., Wilkin P., Fay M.F., Ingrouille M.J., Zarre S. & Chase M.W. (2009) Molecular systematics of Gagea and Lloydia (Liliaceae; Liliales): implications of analyses of nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequences for infrageneric classification. Ann. Bot. 104(1): 125-142. [available online at:]

Zarrei M., Wilkin P., Ingrouille M.J. & Chase M.W. (2011) A revised infrageneric classification for Gagea (Tulipeae; Liliaceae): insights from DNA sequence and morphological data. Phytotaxa 15: 44–56.

Zarrei M., Zarre S., Wilkin P. & Rix E.M. (2007) Systematic revision of the genus Gagea Salisb. (Liliaceae) in Iran. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 559–588. [available online at:]

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith