Modiola Moench

Modiola is a monospecific genus native to pantropical and warm-temperate America. It forms a clade with Modiolastrum (Tate & al. 2005). Its single species, Modiola caroliniana, has become a weed in many parts of the world (including southern Europe) and has been recorded as alien species in Belgium.
Additional information on the genus Modiola is available at the Malvaceae Info website at:


Cuadrado G.A. (2003) Palinologia de los generos Modiola, Modiolastrum y Tropidococcus (Malvaceae). Bonplandia 12(1-4): 67-82. [available online at:

Hill S.R. (2015) Modiola. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 6. Oxford University Press, New York: 303-304. [available online at:]

Jiménez Reyes M.N. (2004) Morfología de los granos de polen de la familia Malvaceae de Jalisco, México. 4. Malachra, Malva, Malvastrum, Malvaviscus, Malvella, Modiola, Neobrittonia y Pavonia. Ibugana 11(1): 17-42. [available online at:]

Khushk M.T. & Vaughan J.G. (1986) Seed structure in relation to the taxonomy of the Abutileae (Abutilon, Anoda, Modiola, Sida, Sphaeralcea and Urocarpidium). Pakistan J. Bot. 18(1): 103-114.

Tate J.A., Fuertes Aguilar J., Wagstaff S.J., La Duke J.C., Bodo Slotta T.A. & Simpson B.B. (2005) Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Malveae (Malvaceae, subfamily Malvoideae) as inferred from ITS sequence data. Am. J. Bot. 92(4): 584-602. [available online at:]

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith