(incl. Fumariaceae)

The familial circumscription of Papaveraceae has always been controversial. Fumariaceae are included by some authors and excluded by others. Hoot & al. (1997) provided molecular evidence for the exclusion of Fumariaceae from Papaveraceae but this was later superseded by additional phylogenetic research (APG III 2009).

Similarly, intergeneric relationships are still uncertain, despite the existence of several different molecular phylogenetic studies. Current problems are explained under each genus separately. As a rule, the present account is rather conservative and often relies on morphological characters more than on phylogenetic studies (especially in Papaveraceae s.str.).

1       Petals absent. Leaves palmately veined and lobed. Tall, erect, rhizomatous and glaucous perennial, stem to 200 cm === Macleaya

         Petals present. Leaves usually pinnately veined. Smaller annuals, biennials or perennials, rarely exceeding 100 cm=== 2

2       Flowers zygomorphic (petals very dissimilar). Stamens 6 or less === 3

         Flowers actinomorphic (petals all identical). Stamens numerous === 9

3       Glaucous annual. All leaves in a basal rosette. Petals yellowish orange, not spurred or saccate === Hypecoum

         Perennial or leafy annual. Petals variously coloured, at least one spurred or saccate === 4

4       Flowers pink with two outer petals spurred === 5

         Flowers with only one petal spurred === 6

5       All leaves in a basal rosette === Dicentra

         Stem leafy === Lamprocapnos

6       Fruit a 1-seeded globose, achene, indehiscent === Fumaria

         Fruit (1-) 2 to many seeded, elongated, usually dehiscent === 7

7       Leaves with tendrils. Annual. Flowers 5-6 mm long (native) === Ceratocapnos

         Leaves without tendrils. Perennial. Flowers 10-30 mm long === 8

8       Plant tuberous or not. Flowers purplish, pinkish, white or yellow. Stem simple. Style persisting on the fruit === Corydalis

         Plant not tuberous. Flowers yellow or creamy white. Stem branched. Style deciduous after anthesis, not persisting on the fruit === Pseudofumaria

9       Sepals fused into a hood. Flowers perigynous (calyx, corolla and stamens inserted above base of the ovary). Petals usually bright yellow or orange (rarely cream). Plant glaucous with watery sap === Eschscholtzia

         Sepals free. Flowers hypogynous (calyx, corolla and stamens inserted at base of the ovary). Petals variously coloured. Plant with milky sap === 10

10     Capsule linear, > 10x as long as wide === 11

         Capsule subcylindrical to ovoid or globose === 13

11     Inflorescence umbel-like. Petals yellow, flowers ca. 10-20 mm across. Capsule 1-locular, < 60 mm long (native) === Chelidonium

         Inflorescence not umbel-like, flowers usually solitary. Petals variously coloured, always larger. Capsule 1 or 2-locular, usually > 60 mm long === 12

12     Petals violet. Pubescent annual. Capsule 1-locular, opening by (2-) 3-4 (-6) valves === Roemeria

         Petals red or yellow. Glabrous or pubescent biennial or perennial. Capsule 2-locular, opening by 2 valves === Glaucium

13     Style short. Stigmas distinct. Capsule opening by 4-6 valves. Petals yellow, rarely orange === Meconopsis

         Style absent. Stigmas in a 4-20 rayed, sessile disk on the ovary. Capsule dehiscing by apical pores. Petals red, orange, mauve or white === Papaver

Additional alien: Argemone mexicana L. (incl. A. ochroleuca Sweet, A. mexicana var. ochroleuca (Sweet) Lindl.) (C and S-Am., wool alien). This species was a regular wool alien in the valley of river Vesdre in the surroundings of Verviers, at least between 1891 and 1957. Although it was recorded after 1950 it is not treated in detail in this account because it was exclusively associated with wool importation, a trade that no longer exists in its traditional form. New occurrences are therefore rather unlikely.

APG III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161(2): 105-121.

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Brückner C. (1982) Zur Kenntnis der Fruchtmorphologie der Papaveraceae Juss. Feddes Repert. 93: 153-212.

Fedde F. (1909a) Papaveraceae-Hypecoideae et Papaveraceae-Papaveroideae. In: Engler A. (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich. 40. Englemann, Leipzig: 1-430.

Fukuhara T. (1998) Morphology and phylogeny of Fumariaceae-Fumarioideae. Shokubutsu Bunrui, Chiri 49(2): 153-170.

Hoot S.B., Kadereit J.W., Blattner F.R., Jork K.B., Schwarzbach A.E. & Crane P.R. (1997) Data congruence and phylogeny of the Papaveraceae s.l. based on four data sets: atpB and rbcL sequences, trnK restriction sites, and morphological characters. Syst. Bot. 22: 575-590.

Kadereit J.W. (1993a) Papaveraceae. In: Kubitzki K. & al. (eds.), The families and genera of vascular plants. Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag: 494-506.

Kadereit J.W., Blattner F.R., Jork K. & Schwarzbach A. (1994) Phylogenetic analysis of the Papaveraceae s.l. (including Fumariaceae, Hypecoaceae, and Pteridophyllum) based on morphological characters. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik und Pflanzengeographie 116: 361-390.

Kadereit J.W., Blattner F.R., Jork K. & Schwarzbach A. (1995) The phylogeny of the Papaveraceae s.l.: Morphological, geographical and ecological implications. In: Jensen U. & Kadereit J.W. (eds.), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Plant Systematics and Evolution (Supplement) 9: 133-145. 

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Lawalrée A (1956a) Fumariaceae. In: Robyns W. (ed.), Flore Générale de Belgique, vol. 2, fasc. 2. Jardin Botanique de l’Etat, Bruxelles: 141-159.

Lawalrée A (1956b) Papaveraceae. In: Robyns W. (ed.), Flore Générale de Belgique, vol. 2, fasc. 2. Jardin Botanique de l’Etat, Bruxelles: 121-140.

Lidén M. (1986) Synopsis of Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae) with a monograph of the tribe Fumarieae. Opera Bot. 88: 1-133.

Pérez-Gutiérrez M.A., Romero-García A.T., Salinas M.J., Blanca G., Fernández M.C. & Suárez-Santiago V.N. (2012) Phylogeny of the tribe Fumarieae (Papaveraceae s.l.) based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences: Evolutionary and biogeographic implications. Amer. J. Bot. 99: 517-528.

Stace C. (2010) New flora of the British Isles, 3th ed.: XXXII + 1232 p. Cambridge University Press.

Taylor J. (1991) Offbeat Papaveraceae. The Plantsman 13(2): 65-74.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith