Parapholis incurva

1. Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard [syn.: Lepturus incurvatus (L.) Trin., L. incurvus (L.) Druce] (Euras., Medit.) – A very rare and mostly ephemeral alien. Formerly rarely recorded as a wool alien in the valley of river Vesdre, at least between 1895 and 1907 (but only recently recognised as such; compare with Verloove 2006). Discovered in 2009 on wasteland in Lanaken (Smeermaas), apparently introduced with building materials (ca. 20 plants). In the same area, again in 2009, furthermore seen in abundance on an unloading quay for talc by a canal in Rekem, along with Polygonum arenarium. Confirmed in both localities in 2020 and apparently well established. Both species were possibly introduced from Egypt or Pakistan.

Parapholis incurva has long been confused with native P. strigosa. Both are preferably distinguished on anther characters (see key). Glume length – often provided as a secondary character (see Lambinon & al. 2004) – is an unreliable feature.

Herbarium specimen

Parapholis incurva, Lanaken, dry, gravelly soil, June 2009, R. Barendse
Parapholis incurva, Lanaken, dry, gravelly soil, June 2009, R. Barendse


Selected literature:

Akeroyd J.R. (1984) Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard: a grass overlooked in Ireland. Irish Nat. J. 21(5): 228-230.

Lambinon J., Delvosalle L., Duvigneaud J. (avec coll. Geerinck D., Lebeau J., Schumacker R. & Vannerom H. (2004) Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions voisines (Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes). Cinquième édition. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise: CXXX + 1167 p.

Verloove F. (2006) Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium. Scripta Botanica Belgica 39: 89 p.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith