Scrophulariaceae (s.str.)

(incl. Buddlejaceae, Selaginaceae)

Phylogenetic studies indicate that Scrophulariaceae should be broken up into several families (Olmstead & al. 2001; see also Olmstead 2002 for a comprehensive summary). This changed familial circumscription is now widely accepted in contemporary floras in western Europe (e.g. van der Meijden 2005, Stace 2010) and is here applied as well. Belgian representatives of the traditionally circumscribed Scrophulariaceae (native as well as non-native) are now segregated as follows:

Calceolariaceae: Calceolaria

Linderniaceae: Lindernia

Orobanchaceae: Bartsia, Euphrasia, Melampyrum, Odontites, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Rhinanthus

Phrymaceae: Erythranthe (syn.: Mimulus sect. Erythranthe)

Plantaginaceae (incl. Veronicaceae): Anarrhinum, Antirrhinum, Asarina, Chaenorrhinum, Chelone, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Erinus, Gratiola, Kickxia, Linaria, Misopates, Veronica

Scrophulariaceae s.str.: Buddleja, Chaenostoma (syn.: Sutera s.l.), Hebenstretia, Limosella, Nemesia, Scrophularia, Verbascum

The exact placement of most genera (especially in non-tropical regions) is now more or less straightforward. The native genus Limosella is here retained in Scrophulariaceae s.str. (following Kornhall & Bremer 2004, 2005), although it was initially also transferred to Plantaginaceae (e.g. van der Meijden 2005).

1       Corolla 4-lobed === 2

         Corolla 5-lobed === 3

2       Shrub. Leaves usually with stipules === Buddleja

         Herb. Leaves without stipules === Hebenstretia

3       Fertile stamens 5 in most flowers. Leaves alternate === Verbascum

         Fertile stamens 4. Leaves opposite, in whorls or all leaves in a basal rosette === 4

4       Leaves all in a basal rosette (native) === Limosella

         Stem leafy === 5

5       Corolla spurred === Nemesia

         Corolla not spurred === 6

6       Flowers in multi-flowered cymes. Corolla brownish or greenish yellow. Stem erect === Scrophularia

         Flowers solitary in leaf axils. Corolla white or pink with yellow center. Stem decumbent to ascending === Chaenostoma


Kornhall P. & Bremer B. (2004) New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes the taxa of the tribe Manuleeae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146: 453-467. [available online at:]

Kornhall P. & Bremer B. (2005) Corrigendum. New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes the taxa of the tribe Manuleeae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 147: 385-386. [available online at:]

Olmstead R.G. (2002) Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae? Fremontia 30(2): 13-22. [available online at:]

Olmstead R.G., dePamphilis C.W., Wolfe A.D., Young N.D., Elisons W.J. & Reeves A. (2001) Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. Am. J. Bot. 88: 348-361. [available on line at:]

Stace C. (2010) New flora of the British Isles, 3th ed.: XXXII + 1232 p. Cambridge University Press.

Van der Meijden R. (2005) Heukels’ Flora van Nederland (23e druk). Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen: 685 p.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith