1. Indusium reniform, attached sidewise. Leaf blade 1-3(-4) pinnate. Pinnae shortly spinulose or not. Veins free, never anastomosing === Dryopteris

1. Indusium peltate, centrally attached. Leaf blade usually 1-2 pinnate (3-4 pinnate in Rumohra). Pinnae long spinulose or not. Veins free or anastomosing === 2

    2. Veins reticulate, anastomosing. Leaf blades 1 pinnate. Pinnae not spinulose === Cyrtomium

    2. Veins forked, free, never anastomosing. Leaf blade 1-2(-4) pinnate. Pinnae often spinulose === 3

3. Leaf blades 1-2 pinnate, texture variable. Pinnae spinulose. Rhizome short, fronds arising in a close group === Polystichum

3. Leaf blades 2-4 pinnate, leathery and shiny. Pinnae not spinulose. Rhizome long-creeping, fronds arising singly from different points === Rumohra

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith