Chloris Swartz

The generic limits of Chloris have long been unclear. Contrary to Anderson (1974), present-day taxonomists usually segregate – among others – Enteropogon Nees, Eustachys Desv. and Oxychloris Lazarides (all represented as aliens in Belgium). A narrow interpretation of Chloris is supported by recent molecular research (Hilu & Alice 2001) and followed here as well. As such, Chloris comprises ca. 55-60 species and is most abundant in the southern hemisphere.

Species of Chloris formerly were among the most typical representatives of the wool alien flora in the valley of river Vesdre around Verviers. Fasseaux (1952) and Lambinon (1959) contributed to the knowledge of this genus in Belgium.

Numerous species are noxious weeds (agricultural as well as environmental) and have spread far beyond their native distribution range.

Additional aliens: Chloris divaricata R. Brown (Aus., wool alien), C. pectinata Benth. (syn.: C. divaricata var. minor J.M. Black) (Aus., wool alien), C. truncata R. Brown (Aus., wool alien), C. ventricosa R. Brown (Aus., wool alien) and C. virgata Swartz (syn.: C. compressa DC., C. elegans Kunth, C. barbata (L.) Swartz var. decora (Nees ex Steud.) Benth.) (trop., wool alien).

Some segregates of the genus Chloris were also formerly recorded in Belgium: Enteropogon acicularis (Lindl.) Lazarides (syn.: Chloris acicularis Lindl.) (Aus., wool alien), Eustachys neglecta (Nash) Nash (syn.: Chloris neglecta Nash) (N-Am., wool alien), E. retusa (Lag.) Kunth (syn.: Chloris retusa Lag.) (S-Am., wool alien) and Oxychloris scariosa (F. Muell.) Lazarides (syn.: Chloris scariosa F. Muell.) (Aus., wool alien).

Chloris pycnothrix


Anderson D.E. (1974) Taxonomy of the genus Chloris (Gramineae). Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series 19(2): 1-133.

Barkworth M.E. (2003) Chloris. In: Barkworth M.E. & al. (eds.), Flora of North America north of Mexico, vol. 25: 204-218. Oxford University Press, New York-Oxford.

Cerros-Tlatilpa R., Siqueiros Delgado M.E. & Skendzic E.M. (2015) El género Chloris Sw. (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) en México. Acta Botanica Mexicana 112: 95-147. [available online at:]

Fasseaux W. (1952) Les Chloris adventices en Belgique. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 84: 239-242.

Häfliger E. & Scholz H. (1981). Grass weeds II. Documenta, Ciba-Geigy, Basle: XX + 137 p.

Hilu K.W. & Alice L.A. (2001) A phylogeny of the Chloridoideae (Poaceae) based on matK sequences. Syst. Bot. 26: 386-405.

Lambinon J. (1959) Contribution à l’étude de la flore adventice de la Belgique. II. Etude sur diverses Gramineae. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 91: 179-195.

Molina A.M. & Rúgolo de Agrasar Z.E. (2004) Revisión taxonómica de las especies del género Chloris (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) en Sudamérica. Candollea 59: 347-428.

Müller C. (1985a) Untersuchungen an südamerikanischen Gramineen II Bestimmungeschlüssel (sic) der Chloris-Arten Südamerikas. Feddes Repert. 96: 269-277.

Müller C. (1985b) Bestimmungsschlüssel adventiver Chloris-Arten (Poaceae). Mitt. flor. Kart. Halle 11: 4-11d.

Van Ooststroom S.J. & Reichgelt Th.J. (1962) Het geslacht Chloris in Nederland. Gorteria 1: 41-46.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith