Phlomis L.

Species delimitation in Phlomis is rather controversial. According to some authors (see for instance Taylor 1998, 2000) it comprises about 250 species. However, most recent treatments (Jäger & al. 2008, Mabberley 2008), only accept 75-100 species. A narrow generic concept is also corroborated by molecular data. Mathiesen (2006) suggested splitting Phlomis s.l. into two separate genera, Phlomoides Moench and Phlomis sensu stricto. Phlomis is native from the Mediterranean area to eastern Asia but its center of diversity obviously lies in (south-) western Asia (see also Mathiesen l.c.). Many species of Phlomis have showy flowers and are suitable for the garden. Taylor (2000) lists 18 species that are cultivated as ornamentals in Europe but rather few are more or less commonly grown (only five according to Jäger & al. 2008).

In addition to the single species included in this account (Phlomis russeliana), an additional one is worth mentioning: P. fruticosa L. It is relatively frequently cultivated as an ornamental and has been reported to reproduce from seed (for instance in De Panne, 06.2013; comm. P. Dupriez). However, it has not been recorded yet outside of gardens where it is cultivated.


Adylov T.A.,  Kamelin R.V. & Makhmedov A.M. (1987) Opredelitel' rastenij Srednej Azii: Kriticeskij kospekt flory 9: 94-107. (In Russian).

Alziar G. & Cafferty S. (1998) Typification of the names of several species of Phlomis of Linnaeus (Lamiaceae). Biocosme Mesogéen 14(4): 119-127.

Azizian D. & Cutler D.F. (1982) Anatomical, cytological and phytochemical studies on Phlomis L. and Eremostachys Bunge (Labiatae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 85(4): 249-281.

Azizian D. & Moore D.M. (1982) Morphological and palynological studies in Phlomis L., Eremostachys Bunge and Paraphlomis Prain (Labiatae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 85(4): 225-248.

Huber-Morath A. (1982) Phlomis. In: Davis P.H. (ed.), Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Island, vol. 7. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press: 102-126.

Jäger E.J., Ebel F., Hanelt P. & Müller G. (eds.) (2008) Rothmaler Band 5. Exkursionsflora von Deutschland. Krautige Zier- und Nutzpflanzen. Springer Verlag, Berlin: 880 p.

Kamelin R.V. & Makhmedov A.M. (1990) A new system of the genus Phlomis (Lamiaceae) (in Russian). Bot. Zhurn. 75: 1163-1167.

Knorring O.E. (1977) Phlomis. In: Shishkin B.K. (ed.), Flora of the U.S.S.R., vol. XXI. Academy of Sciences of the USSR: 41-77.

Li H.-W. & Hedge I.C. (1994) Phlomis. In: Wu Z.Y. & Raven P.H. (eds.), Flora of China, vol. 17. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis: 143-155. [available online at:]

Mabberley D.J. (2008) Mabberley’s plant-book (3th ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: XVIII + 1021 p.

Mateu I. (1986) Révision del género Phlomis L. (Labiatae) en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Acta Bot. Malacitana 11: 177-204. [available online at:]

Mathiesen C. (2006) Phylogeny and biogeography of the lamioid mint genus Phlomis L. Candidata scientiarum thesis, University of Oslo. Available online at:

Mathiesen C., Scheen A.-C. & Lindqvist C. (2011) Phylogeny and biogeography of the lamioid genus Phlomis (Lamiaceae). Kew Bull. 66(1): 83-99.

Rechinger K.H. (1982) Phlomis. In: Rechinger K.H. (ed.), Flora Iranica 150. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz: 292-316.

Taylor J.M. (1998) Phlomis, the neglected genus. A guide for gardeners and horticulturists. 88 p.

Taylor J.M. (2000) Phlomis. In: Cullen J. & al. (eds.), The European Garden Flora, vol. 6. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 196-199.

Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith