Phrymaceae accommodates 13 genera from warm-temperate and tropical regions (Mabberley 2008). Its boundaries were considerably re-defined as a result of molecular phylogenetic studies (Beardsley & Olmstead 2002) and this new circumscription is now widely accepted (APG III 2009). Some genera traditionally placed in Scrophulariaceae now belong here. In Belgium one non-native genus is involved, Erythranthe (formerly Mimulus section Erythranthe). Another species of Mimulus (s.str.) with bluish corolla, M. ringens L., is also cultivated as an ornamental (Silverside 2000). In 2012 it was seen along river Meuse near Givet in France, very close to the Belgian frontier (Dhaussy 2013).

A related genus, Mazus Lour., was also transferred to Phrymaceae (Mabberley 2008) but more recent studies by Reveal (2011) tend to place it in a family of its own, Mazaceae (see also APG IV 2016). One species, Mazus pumilus (Burm.f.) Steenis, is a common weed and is sometimes seen as a bonsai-weed in Belgian plant nurseries. It recently occurred also in the wild (see there; also Desfayes 1997).


APG III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161(2): 105-121.

APG IV (2016) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. [available online at:]

Beardsley P.M. & Olmstead R.G. (2002) Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma. Am. J. Bot. 89(7): 1093-1102.

Desfayes M. (1997) Mazus pumilus (Scrophulariaceae), adventice nouvelle pour l’Italie, et Lemna minuta (Lemnaceae) espèce nouvelle pour la province de Pavie. Saussurea 28: 65-66.

Dhaussy L. (2013) Découverte d'une Lamiale exotique en bord de Meuse, à Givet. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Ard. 103: 171-172.

Mabberley D.J. (2008) Mabberley’s plant-book (3th ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: XVIII + 1021 p.

Reveal J.L. (2011) Summary of recent systems of angiosperm classification. Kew Bull. 66: 5-48.

Silverside A.J. (2000) Mimulus. In: Cullen J. & al. (eds.), The European Garden Flora, vol. 6. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 275-280.

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith